The Tunisian-Mediterranean Association for Historical, Social and Economic Studies (TMA for HSES) & The Tunisian World Center for Studies, Research and Development (TWC for SRD) will organize the thirteenth International Symposium around the theme: “Delinquency, Crimes and Repression in History”, on December 17, 18, and 19, 2020.
The question of delinquency, in the most general sense of the term, is particularly complex because criminologists, sociologists, psychologists, psychoanalysts, doctors, lawyers, and historians who have studied this subject extensively have often expressed very different and even contradictory opinions. Difficulties arise as soon as the phenomenon is to be defined. In French law, the word “delinquency” designates all types of offenses. These fall into three categories: transgressions; which constitute very light offenses, crimes which are at an intermediate level, and crimes among including murders, non-premeditated voluntary homicides, and the assassinations, premeditated voluntary homicides. In recent years, in many countries, rape has entered this category of crimes. The Arabic language differentiates between delinquency (“inhiraf”) which designates minor crimes and the crime (“jarima”) which applies to the most serious crimes and offenses. According to Ibn-Mandhour, the word "jurm" means an offense ("jinayà"), a sin ("dhenb"), a crime ("jarimà"), or disbelief ("kufr"). The term "inhiraf" roughly refers to misconduct; it is the opposite of honesty or righteousness. In everyday English, the word “crime” generally covers all offenses. However, in some countries of Anglo-Saxon culture, the word “felony” is used to describe a serious offense punishable by imprisonment, and the word “misdemeanor” for a minor offense, in principle subject to financial punishment.
I. Origins of delinquency and crimes
Emile Durkheim, one of the founders of modern sociology, wrote in 1894: "Crime is normal because a society which would be free from it is entirely impossible". For Durkheim, crime is not only inevitable in any human group, but it turns out to be necessary. Indeed, offense calls for sanctions and the existence of sanctions - the punishment of the culprit - reassures individuals who feel protected, which strengthens the cohesion of the group.
The origins of crime appear obscure and controversial. In the 18th century, for Jean-Jacques Rousseau, man is naturally good, but he is corrupted by life in society, more precisely by self-centeredness, which stimulates competition between individuals and which therefore provokes conflicts. But, in the 19th century, some theorists believed in the existence of innate tendencies toward delinquency and crime, which amounted to invoking a kind of social determinism.
Today, the majority of specialists do not believe it possible to devise a general theory of crime. They certainly do not rule out the role of certain pathologies and hereditary characteristics that can affect delinquents, but they especially emphasize social characteristics. Thus are cited the strength or weakness of links between various individuals in the group, the influence of family, school, religion, gender, age, acquired habits, place of residence, standard of living, professional qualification, unemployment, and/or the culture of social class and sometimes ethnicity. The role of chance, fortuitous circumstances, and unexpected temptation can also explain crime, which illustrates in short, the proverb "The occasion makes the thief", and adaptation of the old Latin adage “Occasio fiat furem.”
Collective crimes result in particular from a ripple effect, imitation, group propaganda, bands of criminals, political parties, moral guides, or even from the State. Times of crisis, war, invasion, occupations, and economic recessions and depressions can promote criminal acts because of the disordering of political, economic and social structures. Thus, during the First World War, juvenile delinquency took on considerable proportions because fathers sent off to war were absent, as were the police and teachers. Mothers often worked outside the home, public lighting was greatly reduced, and compulsory schooling was not strictly enforced.Thus, according to contemporary analyzes, the criminal act results above all from social factors, in the broadest sense, factors which can be multiple and interacting, according to individual circumstances.
II. Types and forms of delinquency and crime
"Like virtue, crime has degrees." This Alexandrine line of poetry by Jean Racine in his tragedry “Phaedra” emphasizes the need to establish a typology of crimes. Multiple taxonomies are possible. Thus, according to the gravity of the acts, one can distinguish small, average and great crimes. Depending on the victims, the crimes committed against persons, against property, against the general public. It is traditional to differentiate between crimes of common law which attack individuals and political crimes which are directed against the public interest. In fact, it proves difficult to propose a completely satisfactory typology because many crimes overlap and can be multifaceted.
Political crime threatens public institutions and the security of the state. It covers numerous crimes: electoral fraud, treason, espionage, sabotage of strategic installations, insurrection, and coup d 'état (which is also called “putsch” or “pronunciamiento” when it is fomented by soldiers). Political assassination, described as regicide when the victim is a monarch, has claimed many illustrious victims from Julius Caesar to President Habyarimana of Rwanda, as well as King Henri IV of France, Tsar Alexander II, the revolutionary Leon Trotski, American Presidents Lincoln and Kennedy, and Congo Prime Minister Patrice Lumumba...
War crimes qualify as violations of the law of war: assassinations or ill-treatment inflicted on prisoners of war and on civilian populations, deportations and executions of hostages, looting and destruction of towns and villages, planned destruction of sites and historical monuments. The notion of “war crime” was gradually formed during the First World War, but the sanction did not then have international application. This was born in 1945 with the Military Tribunal of Nuremberg which tried German war criminals and the Court of Tokyo which tried the Japanese ones.
Crimes linked to imperialism and colonial expansion stem from the will of certain states to dominate others. The native peoples of America, Africa and Asia have been more or less decimated by the wars of conquest. Oppressed peoples have often been driven to revolt and violence. Imperialism, backed by ideologies - capitalism or communism - has created many hotbeds of war around the world, such as in Angola and Mozambique.
Crimes against humanity are war crimes that can be of exceptional gravity: systematic persecution for political, racial, or religious reasons, violence of all kinds and methodical and planned extermination. When the crime is aimed at destroying a national, ethnic or religious group, seriously dehumanizing it, taking away its children or preventing births, the offense is qualified as genocide.
Crimes against peace, known as crimes of aggression since 2010, are committed by individuals or states which prepare and launch an armed aggression against the sovereignty, territorial integrity, or independence of a state. These acts constitute manifest violations of the Charter of the United Nations.
Organized crime in the caterogy of ordinary crimes is committed by structured groups which commit serious crimes. These groups often have names such as: “Mafia” in Italy, “Cartel” in Mexico and Colombia, “Tongs” in China, “Yakuzas” in Japan. Their illegal activities involve the trafficking of drugs, weapons, counterfeit money, and human beings. Their objectives are the control of vast territories and achieving monopolies in certain areas of crime. Their methods involve violence and corrupting the administrative and political apparatus. With the gains proving to be significant, the groups are seeking tax havens and facilities for money laundering.
Financial crime, sometimes called white collar crime, is based on scams, often on an international scale, and takes many forms: tax fraud, fraudulent bankruptcy, insider trading, misuse of social assets, embezzlement, and money laundering. Large-scale crimes can lead to international crises.
Theft and burglary include taking the property of others. The use of violence, the use of a weapon, and breaking and entering increase the gravity of the crime. There are many kinds of theft: pickpocketing and purse snatching, various scams, carjacking, hotel burglary, drugging victims, bait-and-switch, and prostitures getting their cleints drunk to rob them, and selling counterfeit merchandise. There are crimes specific to rural areas: crop and livestock theft (“rustling”) and poaching.
Juvenile delinquency refers to the illegal behavior of children or adolescents. In most countries, this type of crime is subject to special judicial procedures. Young offenders most often engage in theft, drug trafficking, vandalism such as setting fires in garbage and automobiles. Nowadays young people increasingly engage in urban violence, especially in slums and poor suburbs. Feeling that they are disadvantaged or are the victims of police violence or racism, they get carried away and engage in angry collective outbursts during which they attack public buildings, goods or urban transport, the police and firefighters.
Sexual delinquency refers to behavior that deviates from the norm: exhibitionism, rape, abuse of children and non-consenting people, and homosexuality in countries where this type of relationship is penalized. Prostitution is generally placed in this category.
Environmental crimes are becoming punished with increasing severity. These include illegal fishing activities, trafficking in protected animal and plant species, illegal exports of exotic lumber, clandestine gold panning, unauthorized subdivision on restricted land, water diversions, etc. The fight against these crimes is increasingly taking on an international dimension, spurred on by Interpol and various NGOs. In September 2018, a World Conference on Forest Crime was held in Lyon.
Cybercrime constitutes a new form of crime which, located in a virtual space, relies on computer resources. There is increasing frequency of data theft, online scams and blackmail, bank credit card fraud, identity theft, child pornography, and incitement to terrorism and racial hatred (“hate crimes”). In 2001, an International Convention on Cybercrime was held in Budapest.
Ritual crimes are generally committed in traditional societies or in rural areas. In some pre-colonial African societies certain children were considered as "bad luck" and were murdered. Such rituals are also practiced by secret societies which hope to increase their power in this way, or by people in search of mystical power and wealth. One sucy category is honor killing, which involves taking the life of a person accused of having dishonored a family, for example when a young girl is seduced.
Specialists distinguish many other kinds of special offenses. Complex crimes result from the combination of several unlawful acts of different kinds committed simultaneously or over time, such as theft followed by concealment, or serial crimes. The offense of recklessness results from negligence which is not necessarily deliberate. The offense of omission or inaction is attributable to an individual who refrains from reporting an illegal act or rescuing a person in danger.
III. Types of offenders and criminals
Studies of the sex of offenders raise more questions than they answer. The only certainty is that women commit far fewer crimes than men, even though an increase in crimes by women is appearing today in some countries.
The explanations that have been proposed are mostly relativized or canceled out by other analyses. In the 19th century, women, seen especially in their conjugal and maternal dimension, were considered less likely than men to commit crimes because they were mainly absorbed in family tasks. Often subject to rigorous control, they had limited freedom and were less exposed to temptation. Offenses by women were therefore considered to be the result of an illness or, in any case, an abnormality. On the other hand, men who committed crimes were thought to be expressing their virility. Some works have tried to explain the differences in behavior between the sexes via biological factors, in particular testosterone level, which is higher in men and is thought to cause aggression. Psychological determinations sometimes invoked are unconvincing. The relative increase in delinquency among women has been attributed to female emancipation which would lead women to adopt male behaviors. In any event, all these theories have been debated with statistics and various second opinions.
The study of crime with respect to the age of offenders also raises many questions. In general, it seems that the peak of deviance is between 20 and 30 years, then decreases with age. The entry into working life, marriage, the arrival of children, and the increase in responsibilities seem to explain the decline. Some studies suggest that many adult offenders committed their first crimes before the age of 18. However, in the area of age, one must also observe great caution and beware of determinisms.
Many studies attempt to establish a correlation between the standard of living and crime: poverty, unemployment, living in disadvantaged neighborhoods, and the harshness of police checks have been cited as explanations for delinquency. Some studies support this. In a recent thesis devoted to the application of the death penalty in France, until its abolition in 1981, it appears that the majority of people subject to capital punishement were young men who were poor and marginalized. Researchers have often noted that prostitutes almost always come from disadvantaged sections of society. The debate became political. The idea of a link between poverty and crime appealed to leftist activists. American sociologists Richard Cloward and Lloyd Ohlin argued in the 1970s that juvenile delinquency was a form of social criticism. Young people, deprived of prospects for social advancment, would commit crimes as a response to social violence. However, conservatives objected that the idea of a link between poverty and delinquency was demagogic and an offense to law-abiding low-income people. Heather MacDonald argued to American sociologists that the recession of 2008-2009 in the United States should have increased, according to their theory, the number of criminals, but in fact their numbers declined. It shouild be noted that the correlation between two phenomena, poverty and deviance, is not necessarily deterministic. The discussion therefore remains open.
IV. Social reactions to delinquency and crime
Society's responses to crime should be based on reliable statistics. However, in this area, uncertainties remain. Not all crimes are solved, and nor are all crimes reported. Governments, reacting to public opinion, sometimes change their ways of recording crime - the figures, the thresholds, the criteria, the recording methods, all of which renders crime statistics less reliable.
The example of crimes committed by foreigners in France, considered from a statistical point of view, illustrates this ambiguity. Overall, the figures are indisputable: foreigners commit more crimes than French people and have higher rates of incarceration. However, the interpretation of the figures leads to nuance the comparisons. Crimes by foreigners include the legality and regularity of their stay in France, while the French, citizens in their own country, cannot commit this kind of crime. This tips the crime rate against foreigners. Furthermore, foreigners are mainly men who are young, poor, and less educated. Because of their phenotypically racial characteristics, they are often subject to greater scrutiny. They are more often found guilty, imprisoned, and given stiffer sentences and are less able to defend themselves. If one takes these factors into consideration, the crime rate of foreigners is very likely not so different from that of the French.
National and local authorities generally try to take preventive measures. These include: educational measures aimed at young people and adults, professional training, civics courses, associations that offer tutoring or help with homework, supervised leisure activities, sports activities, urban programs, urban renewal, improvement of public facilities, programs for the integration of immigrants, assigning police to neighborhoods to dispel feelings of insecurity, warnings to young girls against being recruited by prostitution networks, etc. All these actions are facilitated by teachers, doctors, psychologists, social workers, local elected officials, and police. Prevention also includess the protection of individuals by means of patrols, guards, video surveillance systems, the installation of security closures on dwellings, and sometimes self-defense courses.
Law enforcement is codified by laws that set the legal standard. Depending on the country, these rules are inspired by tradition, including religion, by the constitution, and by certain international treaties. The law is binding: Dura lex sed lex, said the Romans (The law is hard, but it is the law). Montaigne expresses the same idea in his Essays: "The laws have credibility not because they are just, but because they are laws". In fact, laws are relative and contingent in time and space. Ambiguities arise out of different ideas about “natural law”, which is often thought to be the source of human law. For some theologians, natural laws are confused with moral conscience. For Voltaire, justice is instinctual. Hobbes equates natural law with reason and, in his book Leviathan, he sums up his thinking in these terms: "Do not do to others what you think is unreasonable for others to do to you". Degrees of repression vary from time to time and from country to country, depending on the evolution of political mores and political majorities. Thus, in France, abortion, long considered a crime and even punishable by death under the Vichy regime, was legalized by the Veil Law of January 17, 1975. In theocracies and regimes based on a religion, all attacks on the State--all criticism, profanity, sacrilege, even conversion to another religion--are punishable under the law. On the other hand, in secular states, criticism and blasphemy are allowed, and only certain kinds of personal attacks, such as “hate crimes,” are punished.
The search for those who break the law is entrusted to the police, who have represented the state since ancient time. The names assigned to the representatives of public order take different forms: sheriffs, marshals, constables, commissioners, inspectors, police officers, detectives. Modes of organization are also variable: national police and municipal police, federal police and provincial police in federations, civilian police and military police in uniform, gendarmes, border police, customs officers, maritime police, traffic police, scientific police, etc. Authoritarian states generally have very feared political police such as the GPU and the KGB in the USSR, the Stasi in East Germany, the PIDE in the Portugal of Salazar, the Gestapo in Nazi Germany and the 'OVRA (Organization of vigilance and repression of anti-fascism) in fascist Italy, the death squads in certain countries of Latin America, etc. Interpol is an international organization of police, created in 1923, to fight international crime. It groups together 194 countries and is based in Lyon.
The function of justice is to judge according to the rules of law. It is present in all organized societies according to the Latin adage, Ubi societa ibi jus (Where there is society, there is law). Laws draw on a variety of sources. There are countries of customary law, the best examples of which are Mongolia and Sri Lanka, but customary law is increasingly giving way to non-customary law. The countries of Koranic law apply the rules of Islam. Some of these countries combine prescriptions of religious origin with principles derived from the laws of former Western colonizers, which leads to mixed systems. The so-called civil law countries of Roman origin apply codes defined by individuals and groups in authority over time. Anglo-Saxon countries subject to the Common Law are mainly inspired by case law—i.e., decisions taken by the courts in the past. The organization of the courts varies from country to country. These include, among others, magistrates responsible for hearing trials, children, family cases, the application of sentences, economic disputes, appealed trials, prosecutors representing the public prosecutor, etc. In common law countries, the word prosecutor designates a kind of lawyer. Depending on the country, magistrates are appointed, elected, or drawn by lot. Most often the accused can be assisted by lawyers. The International Criminal Court, based in The Hague, judges those accused of genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity, and other crimes of aggression. It brings together 123 states.
In ancient times, interrogation of suspects and verdicts could take very violent forms such as torture and execution. The Italian jurist Cesare Beccaria published in 1764, Offenses and Punishment, which had considerable international repercussions and laid the foundations for modern legislation--proportionality of offenses and penalties, the principle of legality ("No punishment without law") , non-retroactivity of more recent criminal laws, sanctions affecting only actions harmful to society, presumption of innocence, condemnation of torture and the death penalty, which was qualified by Beccaria as "public assassination" and having no deterrent effect. He wrote theat "the experience of all centuries proves that the fear of the last torment has never stopped the scoundrels determined to cause trouble in society". The philosopher Denis Diderot argued for a balance of penalties: "Justice falls between the excesses of mercy and cruelty". La Bruyère recommended prompt punishment: "To keep people waiting for justice is injustice".
In contemporary times, laws provide for penalties proportionate to the nature of the offense. In France, a serious crime is punishable by a prison sentence of more than ten years, an offense less than ten years, and light offenses generally involve payment of fines. Additional penalties, confiscations, and withdrawal of driving licenses, can be pronounced. The law includes procedures for pardon and amnesty. States have generally renounced certain very severe punishments such as forced labor. Prisons for children or agricultural colonies have existed in certain countries. These structures where living conditions were extremely harsh did not re-educate and often even made imprisoned people more dangerous, as Dostoyevsky noted when he was locked up for four years in a penal colony in Siberia, "Penal colonies and forced labor onlty develop in the criminal hatred, thirst for forbidden pleasures, and appalling indifference.” (Souvenirs from the house of the dead, 1862). France abolished the penal colonies in two stages; in 1938 and 1945.
Prisons must fulfill very diverse missions, depending on the country and the period considered: to protect society from dangerous individuals, to punish them, to encourage them not to reoffend, to prepare for their reintegration after completion of their sentence, and sometimes to try to end political dissidence. It takes a lot to achieve these goals. Men, women and young people are usually separated, but, depending on the case, there is much to be deplored regarding the state of detention centers, the crowding of prisoners, deficiencies in hygiene, ineffective educational structures, shortcomings in the training of prison staff and respect for human rights.
Criminals and the police who track them have inspired artists. In painting, Caravagio often portrayed "bad boys" as in Les Tricheurs (1594). The same goes for Georges de La Tour with Le Tricheur à l'as de carreau (1636-1638). Many painters painted prostitutes, such as Holbein (Laïs de Corinthe, 1526), Vermeer (L'Entremetteuse, 1656), Manet (Olympia, 1863), and Picasso, who perhaps left the most famous painting on this subject with Les Demoiselles d'Avignon (1907). Rembrandt, for his part, painted the portrait of the members of a bourgeois militia in La Ronde de nuit (1642).
Music is no exception. Prostitutes are the heroines of great operas such as La Traviata by Verdi (1853) and Manon de Massenet (1884). With La Tosca (1900) Puccini presents to the viewer the political police in Rome in the XIX ° century and the assassination of the head of this body. Jacques Offenbach, in comic fashion, composed the opera bouffe Les Brigands (1864).
Literature has abundantly treated the theme of crime with works as diverse as the oriental tale Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves or the figure of the Catalan Bandits who inspired the Spanish authors of the Golden Age, Le Crime de la rue Morgue d'Edgar Allan Poe (1841), Les Misérables by Victor Hugo (1862), and Crime and Punishment by Dostoyevsky (1866). Many criminal characters were popularized by novels auch as Rocambole by Ponson du Terrail, Arsène Lupine, the "Gentleman Burglar" by Maurice Leblanc, Fantômas created by Pierre Souvestre and Marcel Allain in 1910 and taken up by many films in 1913, the Phantom of the opera imagined by Gaston Leroux in 1910 and reincarnated in ballets, musicals, television series, films, and comics. Writers also painted portraits of famous police officers. Arthur Conan Doyle created the character of Sherlock Holmes, the first detective using scientific methods. Georges Simenon is the father of Commissioner Maigret, a specialist in psychological investigation. Rouletabille, from the pen of Maurice Leblanc, is a journalist who solves the most complex puzzles like Le Mystère de la chambre jeune (1908) and Le parfum de la dame en noir (1908). Frédéric Dard immerses his commissioner San Antonio in adventures as colorful as they are imaginative. Agatha Christie, one of the most translated English writers in the world, has her heroes, Miss Marple and the brilliant Belgian investigator Hercule Poirot, unravel the most difficult criminal mysteries; many of her books, such as Murder on the Orient Express (1934) and Death on the Nile (1937), have been adapted for the cinema. The same is true of the great authors of American thrillers, Raymond Chandler, Dashiell Hammett, and Patricia Highsmith. Among the comics, among many others, are the Dalton Brothers, famous clumsy bandits, created by Morris and Goscinny.
In cinema, there is the genre of “film noir” which includes works such as M by Fritz Lang (1931), Scarface by Howard Hawks (1932) which was inspired by Al Capone, Le crime de Monsieur Lange by Marcel Carné (1936) ), Quai des Orfèvres (1947) and Les diaboliques (1954) by Henri-Georges Clouzot, Le cercle rouge by Jean-Pierre Melville (1970), Grâce à Dieu by François Ozon (2019) on sexual abuse scandals in the Catholic Church. Works of fiction offer a representation of reality evoking social inequalities, corruption, deviance, profiteering, and the depths of complex psychology.
The theme of "Delinquency, Crimes and Repression in History" could be approached along the following lines:
The origins of delinquency and crime
- The innate and the acquired
- Individual, hereditary, and pathological factors
- Social factors, family and school deficiencies, cultural factors, habits, gang phenomena, gender, age
- Economic factors, standard of living, professional skills, unemployment
- Times of crisis, wars, invasions, occupations, economic depressions
- Imperialism and colonization
Types and forms of delinquency and crime
- Typology according to the nature of victims and crimes, according to times and countries
- Crime and epidemics
- Political crime, electoral fraud, foreign surveys, insurrections, coups d'etat, attacks, terrorism, political assassinations
- Crime and international relations, war crimes, crimes in the name of state reason
- Crimes against humanity and genocides
- Crimes against peace or crimes of aggression
- Organized crime, mafias, cartels, tongs, yakuza…
- Financial crime, scams, tax fraud, fraudulent bankruptcies, insider trading, money laundering
- Theft and burglary, simple theft and aggravated theft, robbery
- Rural crime, theft of livestock and crops, poaching
- Juvenile delinquency, urban violence
- Sexual delinquency: prostitution, rape, touching, pedophilia, harassment
- Environmental crime
- Ritual crimes and honor killings
- Complex crimes, serial crimes, recklessness, crimes of omission
- Significant criminal cases
Types of offenders and criminals
- Men and women
- Biological and psychological theories
- Age of offenders
- Social explanations, delinquency and living conditions
- Foreigners, immigrants, displaced persons
- Political instrumentalization
- States, "rogue states"
Society's reactions to delinquency and crime
- Statistics, reliability and uncertainties, interpretations
- Prevention, education, internships, supervised leisure activities, city policy, integration of immigrants, strengthening of the protection of individuals.
- Legal repression
- Relativity and contingency of the law
- Police forces, organization and their powers, judicial police, political police, international police
- Justice and its organization, functioning, typology of courts, international courts
- Customary law, Koranic law, civil law, common law, national and international jurisprudence
- Philosophy of law, sentencing, torture, death penalty, convicts, ankle monitors
- Social views on crime, the seriiousness of crimes, behavior of young people, actions of the police
- Citizen fights against crime, taking the law into one’s own hands, vigilantish, neighborhood watches, private militias, bodyguards, surveiullance cameras,
- Prisons, conditions of detention, daily life, prison staff
- Reintegration after completion of sentences: methods, successes and failures
- The representations of crime in arts, painting, music, literature, cinema, comics.
Terms of submission
- Individual proposal: must be a new topic that has not already been published or presented at a scientific symposium.
- Fill the registration form carefully.
- Proposals may be submitted in Arabic, English, French, Spanish and Turkish.
- Detailed abstract: one page at least in WORD 2003 or Word 2007 format (Font: Times New Roman 12 / Line spacing: single, justified alignment, margins 2.5 cm),
- A detailed and up-to-date C.V. of the author,
- A full English translation is compulsory for summaries in French, Spanish and Turkish (one page at a minimum).
- A full translation in English or French is mandatory for Arabic abstracts (one page at least).
Deadline for submission the proposals: December 10, 2020.
- Notification of abstract acceptance or abstract rejection: December 30, 2020.
- Deadline for submission the Final Text: February 25, 2021 (Text: Times New Roman 12.5 / line spacing: single / alignment: justified / References: Garamond 11 / Margin: Up + Down: 4.5 cm, Right + Left: 4 cm).
- Thirteenth International Conference: April 1, 2, and 3 / 2021. Beja, TUNISIA.
- Ibrahim Muhammed Saadaoui (University of Tunisia / T.M.A. for HSES),
- Abdennaser Ali Al-Fakki (International University of Africa. Sudan),
- Abdul Hakim At-Tahawy (Zagazig University. Egypt),
- Adel Ben Youssef (University of Sousse. Tunisia),
- Adel Zyada (Cairo University, Egypt),
- Aislu B. Yunusova (Ufa Science Center. Russia),
- Ammar Fadhel Hamza (University of Basrah, Iraq),
- Anne-Claire de Gayffier-Bonneville (Inalco- Sorbonne University Paris. France),
- Antonio Garrido Almonacid (University of Jaén. Spain),
- Anzhelika Pobedonostseva Kaya (St. Petersburg State University),
- Behçet Kemal Yeşilbursa (Bursa Uludag University. Türkiye),
- Belgacem Tababi (University of Manouba. Tunisia),
- Boutheina Telmini (University of Tunis. Tunisia),
- Camara Moritié (University of Bouake, Ivory Coast),
- Danièle Voldman (CNRS. France),
- Darlene Miller (Wits School of Governance Johannesburg. South Africa),
- Debarati Sarkar (CLRA, Delhi, India),
- Eric R. Dursteler (Brigham Young University. USA),
- Esambu Matenda-A-Baluba Jean-Bosco Germain (University of Lubumbashi. R.D. Congo),
- Fatima Azzahra Guechi (University of Constantine. Algeriaà,
- Habib Belaid (University of Manouba. Tunisia),
- Hana Younes (University of Sarajevo. Bosnia and Herzegovina),
- Hassan Amili (University of Hassan II. Mohammedia. Morocco),
- Hussein Ammari (University of Beni Mellel, Morocco),
- Idrissa BA (Cheikh Anta Diop University of Dakar, Senegal),
- Idrissa Soïba Traore (University of Bamako, Tchad),
- Ilaboti Dipo (University of Lomé. Togo),
- John Chircop (University of Malta),
- Jomaa Ben Zarwal (University of Batna. Algeria),
- Kamaran M.K. Mondal (University of Burdwan, West Bengal, India),
- Kemal Çiçek (Yeni Türkiye Stratejik Araştırma Merkezi. Ankara, Turkey),
- Khaled Nouicer (University of Manouba. Tunisia),
- Khalifa Hammache (University of Constantine. Algeria),
- Kimba Kapanda Vincent (University of Lubumbashi. DRC),
- Koffi Ignace (Felix Houphouet Boigny University, Abidjan. Ivory Coast),
- Kouadio Kouassi Kan Adolphe (Alassane University Ouattara, Bouaké. Ivory Coast),
- Landitiana Soamarina Miakatra (University of Madagascar),
- Laurence Marfaing (University of Hamburg. Germany),
- Laurence Michalak (University of California, Berkeley. USA),
- Lazar Marius (Université Babes-Bolyai, Cluj-Napoca, Roumanie),
- Lisbeth Haas (University of California, Santa Cruz. USA),
- Mabrouk Chihi (University of Jendouba. Tunisia),
- Manel Muhammed Salih (University of Moussul. Iraq),
- Marie-Christine Allart (University of Lille3, France),
- Marina Bertoncin (University of Padova. Italy),
- Martina Hacke (University of Düsseldorf. Germany),
- Masoumeh Daei (Tabriz Payame Noor University of Tabriz. Iran),
- Matthew WALKER (Northern Virginia Community College. USA.),
- Mayéda Ningui Wénssowa (University of Lomé. Togo),
- Mbida Onambele Max Zachée Saintclair (University of Buea. Cameroon),
- Meignan Gouedan Richard (Felix Houphouet Boigny University, Abidjan. Ivory Coast),
- Messina Mvogo Ernest (University of Douala. Cameroon),
- Minoti Chakravarty-Kaul (New Delhi University. India),
- Mohammed Arnaout (Al- al Bayit University, Jordan),
- Mohammed Chadly (University of Algiers, Algeria),
- Mohammed Ratoul (University of Hassiba ben Bouali, Chlef. Algeria),
- Mouna Ben Aissa (University of Gabes. Tunisia),
- Munoz Grégory (University of Nantes. France),
- Mustafa Ozturk (Fırat Üniversitesi. Elazığ. Türkiye),
- Nawal Moutazakki (University of Hassan II. Casablanca. Morocco),
- Nelly Hanna (American university in Cairo. Egypt),
- Paola Avallone (Italian National Council of Research. Napoli. Italy),
- Pierre-Éric Fageol (University of Reunion),
- Prisca Justine EHUI (ISAD. Abidjan. Ivory Coast),
- Rafael Valenci (University of Seville. Spain),
- Raffaella Salvemini (Italian National Council of Research. Napoli. Italy),
- Ralph Schor (University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis. France),
- Saida Chaouch (Kasdi Merbah University, Ouargla. Algeria),
- Salah Haridy (University of Damanhour. Egypt),
- Sami Abdelmalik al-Bayyadhi (Cairo University, Egypt),
- Sami Madhi (Mustansiriya University, Baghdad. Iraq),
- Sami Muhammed Saïd Al Astal (Al-Aqsa University, Gaza. Palestine),
- Sergio Luiz Cruz Aguilar (Sao Paulo State University. Brazil),
- Songül Karahasanoğlu (Istanbul Technical University. Türkiye),
- Talal Hmud al-Mikhlafi (University of Taiz. Yemen),
- Talin Lindsey Hajinian (Bowman School, California. USA),
- Tanoh Raphael Bekoin (University of Bouake, Ivory Coast),
- Tej Ghomri (Bashar University. Algeria),
- Yves Guillermou (Toulouse University 3. France).
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. Ibid., tome 9 p. 41.
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