Purpose and Scope

This is the HOPE glossary, providing definitions of acronyms and abbreviations and a terminology. There are many terms used in HOPE which need to have well-defined meanings, and these are defined in this document.

HOPE takes its terminology from the cultural heritage sector, the research sector and the computer sciences. Same terms have sometimes different meanings in each sector and are therefore ambiguous across different disciplines (e.g., traditional archives, digital libraries, open access repositories, research data centres).

The approach taken is to opt for terms in use by the cultural heritage sector wherever possible in order to allow for specificity and to avoid terms that are overloaded with meaning in several disciplines, so as to reduce ambiguity.

We used different sources. When a definition was taken from or based on an external source, the source is mentioned.

Definitions newly developed are indicated with “HOPE” as source.

For cross-referencing “See” and “See also” are in use. The “Use” and “Use for” signify preferred and non-preferred terms.


  • CP: Content Provider / Content Partner
  • d2d: discovery to delivery
  • DoW: Description of Work
  • EDM: Europeana Data Model
  • ESE: Europeana Semantic Elements
  • HOPE: Heritage of the People’s Europe
  • IALHI: International Association of Labour History Institutions
  • IPR: Intellectual Property Rights
  • OAI: Open Archives Initiative
  • OAIS: Open Archival Information System

A set of items with one or more common factors, such as material type, author, publisher, provenance, and/or subject.
In HOPE, Collections are provided by CPs in the form of metadata records and, if available, Digital Objects. Collections are used as the basis for submission and management of records and objects; and serve as a key access point for end users. As such, collections must meet certain technical requirements.
Note that metadata records belonging to one Collection, may be submitted to the HOPE Aggregator as one or more Data Sets.

Source: HOPE
Use for: Sub-Collection
See also: Data Set, HOPE Theme, Collection item
Note that the HOPE definition of Collection differs from the definition commonly used in the professional community, which holds a collection to be the entire holdings of a single repository.

Collection Item

A Collection Item is the original analogue or born-digital object.
It can consist of a single object, such as an archival document, a publication, a photograph, a movie.
A Collection Item can consist of a set of single objects that are created as a whole.
Collection Items can be grouped in series, such as archival series, periodicals, ''Formal Collections'', TV programs.

Source: HOPE
See also: Collection
Note that in Europeana terms a Collection Item is denoted as a Cultural Heritage Object.

Discovery Service

A web portal, which enables the discovery, identification, and selection of materials through searching and browsing functions.

Source: Glossary v.1

Discovery to Delivery (d2d)

A process that offers all appropriate options to the unassisted information seeker on the web. The journey between discovery and delivery is accomplished with a variety of differing technologies and processes, many of which fall under the responsibility of different providers (discovery services, aggregators, repositories, etc.).

Source: Glossary v.1

Formal Collection

A series of Collection Items that have been created and/or published as one Collection.
A Formal Collection can be a series of photographs created and/or published by one photographer, a series of prints created by one artist.

Source: HOPE
See also: Collection Items, Collection, Informal Collection

HOPE Aggregator

The system that harvests, stores, and disseminates Descriptive Metadata supplied by CPs. The Aggregator enables harmonisation and enrichment of the metadata and provides a Search API for use by the IALHI Portal and CP institutional websites.

Source: HOPE

HOPE Best Practices

Best Practices are generally-accepted, informally-standardised techniques, methods, or processes that have proven themselves over time to accomplish given tasks and unlike standards are often highly context dependent.
In HOPE, Best Practices are used to standardise practice across the BPN with the aim to increase interoperability and to enhance the quality of service. In the early phases of the project, Best Practices are gathered from the professional and technical fields to feed into system development. In later phases, HOPE will publish Best Practices based on its own experience.

Source: Wikipedia (with editing)

HOPE Content Provider (CP)

A HOPE partner with social history collections which provides metadata and Digital Objects to the HOPE System.

Source: Glossary v.1

HOPE PID Service


Source: HOPE


The Application Programming Interface that defines the available methods of the Search Web Service. Software systems performing searches on the HOPE Collections can call the Search Web Service using the API via REST or SOAP protocols.

Source: Hope
See also: Search Web Service

HOPE Shared Object Repository (SOR)

The shared HOPE-Compliant Digital Object Repository used by some CPs for the ingest, storage, management and delivery of their Digital Objects.

Source: HOPE
See also: HOPE-Compliant Digital Object Repository

HOPE Social History Resource

The selection of Collections brought together by the HOPE CPs with the aim of making a coherent and rich social history resource available through Discovery Services.

Source: Glossary v.1
See also: Collection

HOPE Support Team (HOPE-ST)

A group of specialists selected from among the members of the consortium, in charge of the assistance of the CPs to support the implementation of the supply chain.

HOPE System

The set of interdependent entities (CP local information systems, HOPE Aggregator, PID Services, HOPE Shared Object Repository, Discovery Services) forming the integrated whole — called the HOPE System — with the purpose of executing the functions defined in the HOPE high-level design.

Source: Glossary v.1

HOPE-Compliant Digital Object Repository

A digital object repository, digital assets management system, or other network accessible system that is used for the ingest, storage, management, and delivery of Digital Objects and that is compliant to a set of agreed minimum functionalities and services within the HOPE system.

Source: Glossary v.1
Note that this is distinct from local bibliographic utilities or collection management systems, which support the production, storage, and delivery of Descriptive Metadata.

Social History Portal

The Discovery Service, formerly known as, provided and maintained by the International Association for Labour History Institutions (IALHI) for the social science and history research community. was upgraded during the HOPE project, and IALHI asked to provide an official name for the portal decided for Social History Portal.

Source: Glossary v.1

Informal Collection

A series of Collection Items that have been accumulated into one Collection.
An Informal Collection can be a series of photographs collected by a person or an institution.

Source: HOPE
See also: Collection Item, Collection, Formal Collection

Local Object Repository (LOR)

A HOPE-Compliant Digital Object Repository that is maintained by a HOPE CP.

Source: HOPE
See also: HOPE-Compliant Digital Object Repository

Local PID Service

A PID Service such as ARK, Handle System, etc., locally hosted and maintained by the CP. Permits the creation of PIDs and the binding between the Resolve URL and the PID.

Source: HOPE

Search Web Service

A web service provided by the HOPE Aggregator enabling the search of metadata records. The service can be accessed by applications via the HOPE Search API.

Source: Glossary v.1
See also: HOPE Search API

Social Sites

Websites that attract users to share and exchange information, usually for one specific purpose (networking, bookmarking, etc.) or one specific medium (videos, photographs, etc.). Examples include YouTube, Flickr, Scribd, and Facebook.

Source: Glossary v.1


Use: Collection

Third-Party PID Service

A PID service, offered by a third party (regional/national/commercial/etc. service) and used by the CP for PID creation and Binding to the Resolve URL.

Source: HOPE

Administrative Metadata

Data necessary to manage, process, use and preserve digital objects and metadata. Administrative metadata generally includes: Technical Metadata, rights management metadata, and preservation metadata.
Administrative metadata is stored and managed throughout the entities of the HOPE System.

Source: HOPE
See also: Technical Metadata

Aggregator Processing Instruction

The XML format for exchange of Descriptive Metadata and Structural Metadata about Digital Objects between the CP and the Aggregator. To be used by CPs that are not able to integrate metadata about digital objects in their collection management system.

Source: HOPE
See also: Structural Metadata

Archival Finding Aid

Descriptive Metadata on the records composing an archival collection.
The Archival Finding Aid is generally hierarchic, describing the collection from general to specific, starting with the whole then proceeding to the components (fonds, series, files, and items). Such metadata are usually created and captured in an archival management system.
The HOPE data model supports hierarchic description, such as that characteristic of an Archival Finding Aid.

Source: HOPE
See also: Descriptive Metadata, Fonds, Series, File, Item

Authority File

Use: Authority List

Authority List

A controlled vocabulary composed of a set of Authority Record on descriptive terms, names, phrases, or similar entries, which enable cataloguers to disambiguate descriptions with similar or identical headings and to collocate objects that logically belong together but that are presented in a different way.

Source: HOPE
Use for: Authority File
See also: Authority Record

Authority Record

An entry in an Authority List that contains an identifier and the preferred name of the term. Authority Records may also include additional metadata about the term, such as variant names, translations, descriptions, dates, etc.

Source: HOPE
See also: Authority List

Bibliographic Description

Descriptive Metadata on library collection items. Bibliographic Description is formal description providing access to each item and its content. Such metadata are usually produced with a library information system or bibliographic utility.
The HOPE data model supports analytic description such as that characteristic of Bibliographic Description.

Source: HOPE
See also: Descriptive Metadata


A Crosswalk is a document that establishes the correspondence between Metadata Elements of a source Metadata Structure and a target Metadata Structure. In the HOPE system a Crosswalk can be either a Mapping Worksheet drafted by the Content Providers, or the static Mappings between the Domain Profiles and the HOPE Data Model.

Use: Mapping Source: HOPE
See also: Descriptive Metadata, Mapping, XML Transformation, Mapping Worksheet

Data Set

A group of metadata records accessible to the Aggregator from the same entry point. An entry point is a location, either local or remote, identified by a protocol and URI where the harvester can find the Data Set.
In HOPE, a Data Set contains homogeneous XML metadata records — metadata records belonging to the same Collection, with the same metadata format to be mapped into the same HOPE Domain Profile using the same mapping worksheet(s) and serialised in one or more XML files.

Source: HOPE
Use for: Record Group, Record Set
See also: Collection

Descriptive Metadata

Describes the intellectual content of collection materials. Descriptive Metadata are used to facilitate the discovery, identification, and selection of materials.
In HOPE, Descriptive Metadata are harvested from local information systems by the Aggregator and passed to Discovery Services. Descriptive Metadata is gathered for materials with and without related Digital Objects.

Source: HOPE
See also: Archival Finding Aid, Bibliographic Description

Descriptive Unit

The entity in the HOPE data model that represents a metadata record about one or more materials that are contained by a Collection. The Descriptive Unit provides the semantic context for all related Digital Resource or for all related child Descriptive Units.
The Descriptive Unit Entity contains information about one or more Collection Items. A Descriptive Unit entity can describe a single Collection Item, such as an archival document, a publication, a photograph or a movie. It can also describe a series of Collection Items, such as an archival fonds, series or file, series of monographs, a periodical, collection of photographs, a series of TV broadcasts. The Descriptive Unit entity accommodates information about all kinds of Collection Items, irrespective of their domain (archive, library, visual, audio-visual).

Source: HOPE
See also: Digital Resource, Collection Item

Digital Representation

A Digital Representation is a single digital image or audio-visual / sound recording, that provides a single, unique rendition of a Collection Item.
In the HOPE system, a Digital Representation can have multiple versions: a Master, a High-resolution Derivative, a Low-resolution Derivative, a Preview (image, AV clip, sound fragment), a Thumbnail (image), or an OCRed text. Each version is expressed in a Digital File.
In the HOPE Data Model, a Digital Representation, in all of its versions (Derivative 2, Derivative 3, or Transcription), must correspond to exactly one Digital Resource entity. However, if multiple Digital Representations exist of one Collection Item, each will be described in one Digital Resource entity. Thus, for instance, a Descriptive Unit entity describing a Collection item that is a coin, can be associated with two Digital Resource entities, one for an image of the frontside of the coin, and one for an image of the backside of the coin.
Within the HOPE Data Model the term Digital Representation is preferred over the more general term ''Digital Object'', used by Europeana and many other web services, but less well defined.

Use for: Digital Object
Source: HOPE
See also: Descriptive Unit, Digital Resource, Digital File, Digital Object, Collection Item

Digital Resource

A Digital Resource entity contains information about a Digital Representation of a Collection Item. A Digital Resource entity is associated with a Descriptive Unit entity that describes the represented Collection Item. A Descriptive Unit can hold associations to more than one Digital Resource entity, e.g. as with a coin description being associated to two pictures, one for each side of the coin.
The Digital Resource entity contains Structural and Administrative Metadata about digital master and derivative files, stored in a Local or Shared Object Repository.
If a representation exists in more than one file, then the Digital Resource entity should contain information on all such files, e.g. if a picture of the flip side of a coin exists in one TIFF, three JPEGs and an OCR-layer in text format, information on all five files should be contained in one Digital Resource entity

Source: HOPE
See also: Descriptive Unit, Digital Representation, Digital File


An organised unit of documents grouped together either for current use by the creator or in the process of archival arrangement, because they relate to the same subject, activity, or transaction. A file is usually the basic unit within a record series.

Source:… ISAD-G
See also: Archival Finding Aid


The whole of the records, regardless of form or medium, organically created and/or accumulated and used by a particular person, family, or corporate body in the course of that creator's activities and functions.

Source:… ISAD-G
See also: Archival Finding Aid


Used to describe the Levels of Description making up a hierarchy or the specificity of Descriptive Unit.

Source: HOPE
See also: Level of Description

HOPE Common Metadata Structure

The Common HOPE Metadata Structure as such is a structured set of metadata elements, accommodating descriptive, administrative as well as structural metadata about HOPE collections.
The Common HOPE Metadata Structure is a metadata structure, used for the storage of metadata in the HOPE System. The common HOPE metadata structure will act as a pivot or switchboard between local metadata structures and metadata structures used by discovery services harvesting metadata from the HOPE Aggregator.
In addition to the Common HOPE Metadata Structure, HOPE specified five domainspecific metadata structures, named domain profiles. These profiles will create an intermediary step in the transformation process from local metadata structures to the Common HOPE Metadata Structure.
The Common HOPE Metadata Structure and the domain profiles themselves can be considered as a series of discrete lists of logical units, capturing information about a HOPE resource in a human readable form, and should be distinguished from the corresponding HOPE Data Model, HOPE Format and the five domain-specific Formats, which are technical representations of the Common HOPE Metadata Structure and the domain profiles.

Source: HOPE
See also: HOPE Data Model, HOPE Domain Profile, HOPE Format

HOPE Domain Profile

A subset of Metadata Elements, borrowed from an domain-specific metadata standard. HOPE provides 5 subsets, one for each domain type and each related with a domain-specific metadata standard. The archive profile is based on the APEnet/EAD standard; the library profile is based on the MARC21 bibliographic standard; the audio-visual profile is based on the EN15907 standard; the visual domain profile is based on the LIDO standard; the ‘generic’ Dublin Core profile is based on the Dublin Core standard.
HOPE Domain Profiles are used as an intermediate Metadata Structure when mapping local metadata elements to the common HOPE Metadata Structure.

Source: HOPE

HOPE Format

The HOPE Format is a serialized representation of the Common HOPE Metadata Structure using XML, in order to be processed by the HOPE Aggregator. The metadata, encoded in the HOPE Format, is validated by the HOPE Schema, which is specified using the XML Schema language, also known as an XML Schema Definition (XSD).

Source: HOPE
See also: Common HOPE Metadata Structure, XML

HOPE Metadata

HOPE Metadata is metadata represented in the HOPE Data Model. The Aggregator creates HOPE Metadata by transforming Content Providers’ metadata from the CPs’ data model to the HOPE domain profiles’ data models, and subsequently transforming metadata from the HOPE Domain Profiles’ data models to the HOPE Data Model.
Content Providers’ Metadata is metadata provided by Content Providers to the Aggregator, compliant with a set of technical requirements in order to cope with low-level interoperability issues (agreements on protocols and export format) and to be harvested and transformed by the Aggregator. Content Providers’ Metadata has not yet undergone any of the HOPE transformation, normalisation or enrichment procedures.

Source: HOPE

HOPE Metadata Schema

The XML schema used by the HOPE Aggregator for validating and storing the metadata harvested from CPs.

Source: HOPE
See also: Metadata Schema, HOPE Metadata


The smallest intellectually indivisible archival unit, e.g., a letter, memorandum, report, photograph, sound recording.

Source:… ISAD-G
See also: Archival Finding Aid

HOPE Theme

A thematic heading specific to the fields of social and labour history. HOPE Themes are assigned by CPs to HOPE Collections or to groups of records within a single collection.
HOPE Themes are primarily used to provide uniform cross-language, cross-domain access to the HOPE Social History Resource.

Source: HOPE
See: Collection

Level of Description

Level of Granularity of a Descriptive Unit that is part of a hierarchical description. The designation of the level is generally specific to the collection domain. (E.g. for archival collections, this might include fonds, series, files, and items, while for library collections, series, titles, and issues.) HOPE does not limit the number and type of Levels of Description and can also support idiosyncratic descriptive levels.

Source: HOPE
Use for: Level of Granularity
See also: Descriptive Unit, Granularity

Level of Granularity

Use: Level of Description


Process of creating links between Metadata Elements of two distinct Metadata Structures, e.g. between a local, home brew structure and a Metadata Standard or between two metadata standards. A mapping, also called mapping rules, is a specification of such associations between metadata structures.
In HOPE, local metadata structures are mapped through one of the five HOPE Domain Profiles to the common HOPE metadata structure. The HOPE metadata structure has been mapped to several target Metadata Structures including EDM and DC.

Source: HOPE
Use for: Crosswalk

Metadata Element

A single unit of a metadata set, containing a particular category of information (e.g. ‘Date’ or ‘Creator’). Metadata Elements generally have a name (or label) and a cardinality, specifying whether the element is mandatory and or repeatable. The values of metadata elements may have a controlled semantics and/or syntax.

Source: HOPE
Use for: Metadata Field

Metadata Field

Use: Metadata Element

Metadata Record

A Metadata Record is a set of Metadata Elements that contains information about one or more Collection Items.
A Metadata Record can encode one or more entities of the HOPE Data Model.
In the HOPE System, Metadata Records are supplied as XML files, grouped in Data Sets.

Source: HOPE
See also: Metadata Element, Metadata Structure, HOPE Metadata Schema, Data Set

Metadata Schema

A formalised description of a Metadata Structure using a language such as SGML or XML. For example, MARC/XML is a schema for the MARC21 bibliographic metadata structure.

Source: HOPE
See also: Metadata Structure, HOPE Metadata Schema

Metadata Standard

A published document, specifying names, definitions, syntax and/or values of an agreed set of Metadata Elements. Metadata Standards may be cataloguing standards (e.g. ISBD), encoding standards (e.g. EAD), and exchange protocols (METS, OAI-ORE).

Source: HOPE

Metadata Structure

A structured set of Metadata Elements. A Metadata Structure generally has two components: a defined set of metadata elements, which may include the semantics and syntax of the element, and the structural relationship between these elements. A metadata structure is a logical structure, which is formalised in a Metadata Schema.

Source: HOPE
See also: Metadata Schema

Record Group

Use: Data Set

Record Set

Use: Data Set


Documents arranged in accordance with a filing system or maintained as a unit because they result from the same accumulation or filing process, or the same activity; have a particular form; or because of some other relationship arising out of their creation, receipt or use. A series is also known as a records series.

Source:… ISAD-G
See also: Archival Finding Aid

Structural Metadata

Describes the internal structure of Digital Objects and the relationships between their parts. It is used to enable navigation and presentation of digital objects.

Source: PREMIS (with editing)

Technical Metadata

Describes the physical (as opposed to intellectual) attributes or properties of a Digital File. Some Technical Metadata properties are format specific, while others are format independent.
In HOPE, Technical Metadata is generally stored and managed in the SOR, LORs, or local information systems.

Source: PREMIS
See also: Administrative Metadata

XML Transformation

An XML Transformation is the process of applying a set of Mapping rules to one or more source Metadata Records to obtain one or more target Metadata Records.
In the HOPE System, this process consists of a sequence of steps, including granularity mapping steps, semantics/structural mapping steps and validation steps.

Source: HOPE
See also: Mapping


The association of identifiers and data elements and their storage in a PID service. A binding may include, for example, the association between a PID and a Resolve URL or the association between a PID and a Local Identifier. Several data elements may be bound with a single identifier

Source: HOPE

Local Identifier

A string that acts as an unambiguous reference to the resource in the context of the local information system.

Source: HOPE
See also: Reverse Look Up

Persistent Identifier

Use: PID


A character string that is globally unique and permanently identifies a resource within a given context.
In HOPE, PIDs are always associated with a Resolve URL and should be persistently resolvable on the Internet.

Source: HOPE
Use for: Persistent Identifier

Resolve URL

A URL associated with a PID in a PID service. In other words, the URL you are redirected to when you perform a request for a PID.

Source: HOPE


A piece of software that is able to receive the PID of a resource and to return associated data in a defined form, such as the location of that resource in the form of a URL. In the Handle System, a Handle Proxy Server is a resolver.

Source: HOPE and Australian National Data Service

Reverse Look Up

The procedure which retrieves a PID for an item through a search of its associated data.
In the HOPE PID Service, the Local Identifier can be used to perform reverse look up for the PID.

Source: HOPE
See also: Local Identifier

Born-Digital Original

The born-digital object in its original quality version, from which all other versions or Derivatives can be derived.

Source: HOPE

Compound Object

Digital Object composed of multiple content files, for example a periodical issue composed of 25 TIFF files. Structural Metadata describe the internal structure of Compound Objects.

Source: PREMIS (with editing)
See also: Digital Object, Structural Metadata


Different versions derived from the Master or from the Born-Digital Original. Derivatives are generally used for web access to digital content. Derivatives may include thumbnail, preview, high- and low-resolution, and OCRed text versions.
In HOPE, “Derivative” can be a qualifier; we speak of a “Derivative File” or “Derivative Object” as applicable.

Source: HOPE
See also: Derivative 1 (Derivative 2, Derivative 3)

Derivative 1

High-resolution Derivative for reproduction and publication (online/print) purposes.

Source: HOPE

Derivative 2

Medium to low-resolution Derivative for online consultation (view/listen) purposes.

Source: HOPE

Derivative 3

Preview-quality Derivative for display purposes in search results.

Source: HOPE

Digital File

A Digital File is an image, text, film or sound recording, encoded as a binary computer file, a named and ordered sequence of bytes that is known by an operating system. A Digital File can be zero or more bytes and has access permissions, a format, and file system statistics, such as size and last modification.
A Digital File contains a version of a Digital Representation. A digital master file is a version of a Digital Representation, created for the purpose of reuse and re-expression. From a single master file, multiple versions can be derived for specific uses, i.e. derivative files.
A digital derivative file is a version of a Digital Representation, created for a specific use, such as printing, viewing of the Digital Representation.

Source: PREMIS (with editing), HOPE
See also: Master, Derivative,Digital Representation

Digital Object

The expression ''Digital Object'' usually refers to a Digital File or a number of Digital Files that contains or contain Digital Representations of a Collection Item. In HOPE, a Digital Object instantiates or embodies an intellectual entity, such as a book, a periodical issue, an archival document, a photograph or an audio-visual recording, etc. These objects may be digitised or born-digital.
In the HOPE Data Model, a Digital Object is alternativally named ''Digital Representation'', described in a Digital Resource entity, which in turn is associated with a Descriptive Unit.
A Digital Object represents one single Collection Item (Descriptive Unit), even if that item is represented by multiple images (Digital Resources). Thus, if different representations exist for a single Collection Item, e.g. different pictures for each side of a coin, then the whole of these representations is what is called the Digital Object, i.e. the Digital Object of the coin is the collection of all the information on the pictures of both sides of the coin.
A Simple Digital Object consists of exactly one Digital Resource entity. A Compound Digital Object consists of multiple Digital Resource entities.

Source: PREMIS (see: “Representation”), HOPE
See also: Digital File, Digital Representation, Collection Item, Digital Resource, Descriptive Unit, Compound Object, Simple Object

Europeana Portal Image

A Derivative 2 standard setting meeting stated file specifications recommended for submission to Europeana. Europeana uses the image to generate four distinct Europeana Previews.
For more details, refer to the… Europeana Portal Image Policy.

Source: HOPE


Result of digitisation process: a high-quality Digital Object or Digital File from which all other versions or Derivatives(e.g. compressed versions for accessing via the Web) can be derived. The Master is usually created at the highest suitable resolution and bit depth that is both affordable and practical. In HOPE, “Master” is generally used as a qualifier; we speak of a “Master File” or “Master Object” as applicable.

Source: HOPE
See also: Derivative, Digital File


A Derivative 3 used for search purposes, showing only a small part of the original. Previews include Thumbnails(of images) and Stills (of films).
Default icons for each material type are used when no Derivative 3 can be provided.

Source: Glossary v.1
See also: Derivative 3, Thumbnail

Simple Object

Digital Object composed of a single content file, for example a report composed of a single PDF file, a manuscript composed of a single JPEG file, or a radio broadcast composed of a single WAV file.

Source: PREMIS (with editing)
See also: Digital Object

SOR Derivative Table

A table which presents an overview of the derivatives generated by the SOR based on and depending on the quality and format of the Master file submitted.

Source: HOPE
Use for: SOR File Format Table

SOR File Format Table

Use: SOR Derivative Table

SOR Processing Instruction

The XML format for exchange of metadata about Digital Objects between the SOR and the CP.

Source: HOPE


A preview-quality Derivative, used in Discovery Services for the discovery, identification, and selection of visual items within Collections.

Source: HOPE
See also: Derivative 3, Preview

Access Rights

The information that identifies the legal access restrictions pertaining to the HOPE Social History Resource, relating to legal frameworks such as the Copyright Laws, Privacy Law, etc. and licensing agreements between CPs and rights owners.

Source: HOPE
See also: HOPE Access Conditions Matrix


Copyright is a set of exclusive rights granted to the author or creator of an original work, including the right to copy, distribute and adapt the work. Copyright owners have the exclusive statutory right to exercise control over copying and other exploitation of the works for a specific period of time, after which the work is said to enter the public domain.

Source: Wikipedia
See also: Public Domain

Creative Commons Licence(s)

Creative Commons licences are several copyright licences that allow the distribution of copyrighted work.

Source: Wikipedia
Note that besides licences, Creative Commons also offers a way to release material into the Public Domain through CC0, a legal tool for waiving as many rights as legally possible, worldwide.

Donor Restrictions

A limitation placed on access to or use of materials that has been stipulated by the individual or organisation that donated the materials (in practice: donated to the HOPE Content Provider (CP)).

Source: SAA
Note that donor restrictions may require that the collection, or portions of the collection, be closed for a period of time (also referred to as: embargo).


Intellectual Property Rights are like any other property rights – they allow the creator, or owner, of a patent, trademark, or Copyright to benefit from his or her own work or investment.

Source:… WIPO

Public Domain

Content in public domain: Digital Objects that are publicly accessible without any restrictions (no copyright, no payment restrictions). Whether content is public or not is a matter of IPR but also a matter of local content provider policy decision (in terms of pricing policies).
In HOPE we speak of content in public domain if direct access to the content, without any restrictions or conditions, is enabled.

Source: Glossary v.1
Note that Europeana has joined with Creative Commons in developing Europeana's Usage Guide for public domain works, which is associated with the Creative Commons Public Domain Mark.

Content Profile

Use: Dissemination Profile

CP Dissemination Profile

HOPE CP-specific Dissemination Profile for a specific Discovery Service, which overrules the HOPE default profile for that discovery service.

Source: HOPE
See also: Dissemination Profile, HOPE Dissemination Profile

Dissemination Profile

A Dissemination Profile provides the rules according to which the HOPE Aggregator can select the set of metadata records that need to be disseminated to a given Discovery Service. For each discovery service there is one Dissemination Profile.
A Dissemination Profile specifies the rules on the basis of metadata values (e.g. IF access condition = open AND link to digital object is available THEN disseminate to Europeana).

Source: HOPE
Use for: Content Profile
See also: CP Dissemination Profile, HOPE Dissemination Profile

HOPE Access Conditions Matrix

The look-up table defining HOPE-specific access conditions to Digital Objects along three dimensions: content dissemination format (see also Derivative), intended use (fair use/publication), and imposed restrictions (according to agreements between CPs and rights owners).

Source: HOPE

HOPE Delivery API

The fully automated method in which Digital Objects can be technically accessed and retrieved from the HOPE SOR.

Source: HOPE

HOPE Dissemination Profile

This is the set of HOPE default Dissemination Profiles for Europeana, the IALHI Portal, and the Social Sites.
Note: Dissemination Profiles are neither Collection based nor Data Set based.

Source: HOPE
See also: Dissemination Profile

This section last updated July 2013. Content is no longer maintained.